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István KAMARÁS OJD: Anthropology and Ethics




Anthropology and Ethics

(Hungarian pedagogical innovation for teaching Ethics)



            Our observations show that in today's Hungary the natural process of passing on social standards has become distorted, people's relation to values has become unstable in the recent decades. The rising generation has not been prepared for finding its way independently among the more and more complicated social conditions.

            The 10-to-18-year-olds today know considerably more about the mineral resources of South America than about feelings and emotions, they know more about free valences than about the determined nature and the freedom of the human being. They can reduce an equation comparatively well, but they know little about when man is in good condition. They know something about the health, but barely any about the wholeness of man; fairly much about being well off, but far less about being well. A 17-18-year-old-student may even be able to give the chemical formula of ethyl-methyl-keton but knows almost nothing about the components of personality. In spite of the fact that brave and promising initiatives occasionally turn up to meet the long-felt need of human studies, in most schools the human is still notoriously absent. There is a great disparity disproportion between knowledge about nature and pragmatic world and learning about human being, person, soul, conscience, morality.

            What image of man is offered and cultivated by the official and hidden curriculum of our national primary and secondary education, by the ethos of schools and teachers? To what extent does school socialise people for the society of knowledge at least in its wider and deeper sense, or maybe for the society of responsibility and giving? Are there in Hungary any movement-like or institutionalised alternatives to the conceptions of public education, which are founded on more or less reduced images on man?

1. Learning about man: a new subject in the Hungarian schools in the early 90s

            The possibility of teaching Learning about man as a subject in primary and secondary schools came up already in the year preceding the change of regime.[1] This conception was not born in academic workshop; it came into being rather as a practical response to the challenge set on the one hand by the acute lack of knowledge of the human being, as experienced in schools, on the other hand by the growing possibilities of initiation and action in consequence of the change of regime in 1989. Learning about man, which merges descriptive and normative human sciences, was taught in 1990 in a dozen, from 1993 already in 50-60 primary and secondary schools, from 1989 at two teacher-training colleges, in the following years at other colleges, and from 1993 at the University of Pécs. After the change of regime we worked out a subject (under the name Learning about man) in which descriptive (in the first place psychology and sociology) and normative (philosophical anthropology, ethics) human sciences formed a synthesis. The conception of the new subject at colleges and universities is demonstrated well by my irregular textbook (Kamarás, 2007) formed as a platonian dialog[2], in which ten fictive are talking about what man is.   

            Movement-like innovations and institutionalised initiatives met in the Anthropology Workshop (led by me) of the National Institute of Public Education. This team worked out the subject Learning about man (the combination of psychology, sociology, ethics, philosophical anthropology and other human subjects[3]), prepared the necessary teaching aids: curricula for primary and secondary schools, textbooks (Kamarás, Vörös, 1996/a, 1996/b, 2002), educational and methodological guides (Kamarás, 1995) and other teaching aids (Bohár, 1993; Lénártné, 1993; Kamarás, Sárkány; 1993, Kamarás, Sárkány, Varga, 1993; Kuslits, 1993), one after the other. This innovation has became an organic part (entitled Learning about man) of the new National Core Curriculum (NCC) introduced in 1996 by the socialist-liberal coalition government (National, 1995) This area of knowledge became one of the most characteristic subjects of the official curriculum. According to the education-sociological surveys it was acceptable for the majority of educational agents (teachers, parents and students) with various ideologies. The considerable support was due to the many-dimensional image of man (biological- psychic-sociological-mental dimensions) whose "general human" basis underlay a consensus which was acceptable for people of Christian, socialist and liberal values as well. Many students, parents, teachers saw, or learned after some years of teaching experience, that this approach of man could successfully serve an educational practice that helped students to understand the phenomena of the World, related to the Whole, to become capable of loving in a clever (yet not self-seeking, but devoted) way and to realise a society based on giving and responsibility.

2. The main characteristics of the subject Learning about man/Anthropology and Ethics

            The consensus-like Learning about man has a many-dimensional image of man made up of biological, psychological, sociological and spiritual dimensions that form an integral whole. This polyphonic image of man makes choosing and ranking the different dimensions according to one's world-view possible.

This conception synthesises everything that is together in man, that the separate human sciences − since this is their task − examine according to their own (particular) points of view, with all of its advantages and disadvantages. In our Learning about man art is included as an equal approach - besides the biological, psychological, sociological, ethical, cultural anthropological, philosophical, theological, ecological, political and other points of view -, since in the case of questions such as love, freedom, hope, order, finiteness the limits of human sciences can be felt well and the answers of art may be considered more authentic.

            First among equals can be human sciences representing meta-level. Ethics and Philosophical anthropology can be regarded as this kind in the first place. Knowledge of the self, relations and of society may get emphasis as well as preparation for creating a home and founding a family. Beyond doubt different kinds of Learning about man would be desirable in schools depending on whether good mothers and fathers of the family, entrepreneurs, good wives of the house, confident and empathetic contact-makers or the Homo politicos are aimed at. It is possible to elaborate several variations of Learning about man, for example focusing on self-knowledge, social studies, social psychology, ecology, cultural anthropology and practice-oriented ones (manners, etiquette, life style and creating a home, physical and mental health) but no one can operate without ethical reflection.

Ethics can be more effective as a part of Learning about man synthesising the various human sciences than in itself, in which case it can easily become moralisation. The same holds true for self-knowledge, which in itself can easily become “psychologism” (“psychologiosation”), and for social studies, which lacking the company of other human sciences may easily commit the sin of “sociologism” (“sociologisation”) or politicisation. On one hand avoiding of moralisation ethics is integrated  with other human sciences, on the other hand avoiding of  psychologism and sociologism ethics constitute the meta-level, the moral reflection inspires the sociological, psychological, etological, politological approaches.

In a short time after establishing the name transformed Learning o, ethics and society or Anthropology and Ethics. At the framework of the new subject ethics is a so called consensus ethics.  Consensus can be reached, first of all, on the basis of the fact that humans make up one species. Secondly there are quite a lot common points in the various morals and ethics. Further on thinkers of different world-views equally reckon with fundamental values, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and today's other fundamental documents also reckon with fundamental values and virtues. Consensus ethics is not a 'colourless-odourless', sterile rounding off, but it renders resultants, reconciled differences, the difficulties and imperfections of consensus perceptible. It makes deviation from the consensus both for students and for teachers possible. Of course for small children those questions are worth treating, where consensus is unanimous for the most part.

            I consider ethics embedded in human sciences, that is our subject, as the best possible solution for teaching ethics at schools, which is also justified by 10 years experience.

            Learning about man can be an important building block of general culture, of education of morals, ideologies, and self-knowledge as well as of education for culture of relations and public appearance. It can effectively help the development of the student's needs of higher quality, to the realisation of their talent, to their positive attitude to values, to the formation of a realistic image of the self, of man, of the Hungarian nation, of Europe and the world, to the strengthening of their skills of communication, creation, enterprise, tolerance, empathy and humanitarian life style.

            The dimensions of personality that can be developed within the framework of the Anthropology and Ethics are a) the relation of man and self, b) the social and the societal relations of man, c) the relation of man and the world.

            Even if our new subject is not value neutral, it does not imply values, it can help to accept important values after due consideration, to internalise them or, at least, to develop positive attitudes in the ethical sense. These are values with regard to which strong consensus has been reached among experts of social sciences and teachers of different world-views: 1) Unity: relation with myself, with companions, society, nature and the transcendence (the saint); getting acquainted with, interpreting, maybe experiencing, receiving and taking on these, 2) Freedom: independence, self-support, freedom of choice and decision, 3) Knowledge: cognition, awareness, open-mindedness, flexibility, curiosity, seeking justice, critical sense, 4) Moral character: fair-mindedness, honesty, moral firmness, striving after what is right, 5) Interest in life: ingenuousness, health, perception, joy, 6) Work: sense of duty, creation, functionality, expertise, enterprise, high standards, creativity, 7) Love: humanity, unselfishness, public spirit, solidarity, politeness, kindness, helpfulness, generosity, tolerance, empathy, sense of responsibility, 8) Beauty: harmony, order, art

3. The size and content (themes) of Learning about man

            A for the optimal (idealistic, utopistic) version our new subject has been planned for seven classes (from years 5 to 12) and has worked out the following construction: 1) for students in year 5 human is outlined as the result of evolution and ontogenesis, as a many dimensional being, first of all on the basis of their experience, in the second place on the basis of their knowledge. They get to know in detail − but not in a theoretical, rather in a pragmatic approach − the basic functions of body and psyche, how one perceives, feels, interprets things, how one thinks and guesses. 2) In year 6, after the relation of soma and psyche, the relation of psyche and pneuma comes to the front: again on the level of experiences and observations, but the ethical point of view also comes into the picture with a greater emphasis. The circle of man and self comes to an end with the inner voice that starts speaking in us.

3) In years 7 and 8 the circle gets wider: the companions enter the picture. In social relations they have a chance to get to know man of body-soul-mind and personality, represented well rather than made understood with the help of science, in its functioning. Considering the characteristics of the age group one can assume that in all probability the experienced relationships come to the front. 4)         In years 9 and 10 the other person represents society, in year 8 already groups, social sub-systems, societies and the whole human society do so. 5) In Years 11 and 12 the circle gets wider again, and gradually at that, since it happens from the biosphere to the noosphere, from nature to the cosmos, from the widest immanence to transcendence. The foregoing viewpoints increase with the philosophical point of view, which only cropped up so far.

In the National Core Curriculum (in which instead of subjects may be found „educational areas”) the Learning about Man is the part of the Man and Society educational area for 7-12. classes. The themes and the structure of the subject were formed in the following way: 1) The first main topic (Human Nature) is built around the question "What is human being?" Though the answer is left to the students, it confirms those answers, which depict human as a being essentially different from animals, who can be described in several dimensions (body, soul and mind) and reflects on himself/herself. Although the psychological, sociological, ethical and philosophical anthropological viewpoints appear in all themes, in these three themes the psychological approach is first among equals. 2) The topic of the chapter Individual and Person is the human who lives in its language, recognises and thinks, fulfils itself, appraises and is capable of making a decision. In the three subdivisions of the chapter the philosophical, then the psychological, finally the ethical approaches are dominant. 3) The topics of the first three subdivisions of the fourth chapter (Social Relations) are the most frequent types of relationships, the most important forms of connections, in particular the male-female relationship. In these chapters the social psychological and ethical approaches are dominant. In the second part of the chapter the horizon widens and from the world of companions we go over to the world of society, namely to the world of community, work, culture and everyday life. In these parts the approach of social sciences is dominant, but in the subdivision Standard of Living, Life Style, Quality of Life, which ends with the purport of life, strongly appears the philosophical approach as well. In the following chapters the horizon widens once more: first towards nature and the universe, then towards the supernatural (faith and religion). The last chapter helps in portraying the virtuous citizen from the points of view of sociology, political science and socio-ethics. This subdivision - after the chapter Standard of Living, Life Style, Quality of Life - can be discussed at the end of the subdivisions dealing with society. Sorry to say later this realistic version has proved to be idealistic, utopistic.

4. Forms of learning activities

            It results from the peculiarity of Learning about man that usually several kinds of adequate learning activities can be connected to various types of knowledge. Compared to the other subjects Learning about man is characteristic in several ways. Since its subject, the human being is, after all mysterious, or if you like, very much complicated, we know quite little about man in spite of the efforts of human sciences, which are novel compared to the other sciences, yet showing significant results. Therefore in addition to epistemological knowledge we have considerable doxa-like knowledge, besides regularities we have hypotheses, more or less established opinions; experiences, presentiments and feelings get significant role; besides the knowledge matter of human sciences, the human image of myths and the expressive representation of arts take a prominent part, the latter one both in the form of realistic representation and in the form of metaphorical narration. Thematic syllabus includes as much material to be got to know (most part of which can scarcely become known completely) as knowledge, consequently the activities are often built on experiences rather than on knowledge, and an account of one's experiences can be just as adequate activity as fact-finding or logical deduction, and a role-play can be just as adequate as a sociological or psychological experiment. The other characteristic is that the various fields of knowledge or types of knowledge get in the light of several different human sciences, viewpoints, which, of course entails the use of several types of 'lighting equipment', that is activity.

            Apart from the perceptive-observing, appraising and cognitive (generalisation, definition, deduction, analysing, summarising, finding part and whole, cause and effect relations, pointing out possibilities, probabilities and regularities) functions − since these are connected to all to some extent — studying Learning about man can be realised in the following operative activities:[4] listening to tales (5–6), watching films, reading (5–12), listening to explanations and taking notes (5–12), conversation (free associations) (5–12) bringing to the surface and clashing opinions (8–12), refuting and proving hypotheses (10–12), discussing and analysing texts (5–12), play, role-play, social-drama (5–12), doing research in libraries, giving presentations, making bibliographies (5–12), visual representation (5–12)

reflection (7–12), keeping a diary (of work, readings, events, inner actions) (7–12), press monitoring (7–12), preparing pieces of writing (notes, reviews, summaries, studies, essays) (7–12), students' lectures (7–12), organising exhibitions (7–12), visiting and helping the injured, people in need of assistance and sufferers (7–12), observing and analysing themselves, events, situations (7–12),  preparing programs of action (for themselves, for companions, for the environment and society) (9–12), meditation, contemplation (9–12),  creating a work of art on a given subject (visual representation, literary work, film, photo,             happening) (10–12),  becoming acquainted with and interviewing experts (10–12), research (a) collecting, arranging and analysing data, biological, psychological and sociological facts, (b) experiments (c) preparing psychography and sociography in the language of literature and films (10–12)[5].

5. Teaching aids for Anthropolgy and ethics

            Among a dozen of curricula the curriculum elaborated for the Zsolnai-schools is considered to be one of the best. One of them is specialises in social science, another in religious knowledge, another in self-knowledge, and one has a Christian approach.

            Among the textbooks there is only one that suits the requirements of the NCC, and this is the textbook of István Kamarás and Klára Vörös, entitled Learning about man. "At the end of the 20th century, on a sunny September 1st strange creatures arrived from the planet of Alpha-beta-gamma. The ABC-123 satellite exchange sent them to the Earth with the mission of discovering the most developed creature on Earth." These are the opening sentences of the workbook-like textbook, which makes students discover human as a biological, feeling, thinking, appraising, social, moral and spiritual being. The series entitled Mental Hygiene is, in spite of its minor deficiencies (differences in level, not always imaginative and inspiring tasks, and apparently accidental combination of various subjects) after all a decent work (Zsíros, 1991; Polinger, Zsíros). An interesting attempt is the textbook Ethics prepared by the members of the alternative Catholic Bokor movement mainly for religious students. Apart from these a dozen of textbooks of self-knowledge, social studies and ethics (Jakab, Lányi, 2001) can be used well for teaching Learning about man.

            Half a dozen of methodological guides (Lénártné, 1993), exercises (Szűcs, 1997; Ambrus, Kéri, 1996), and anthologies have been prepared, and a dozen of teacher's handbooks also help in teaching Learning about man (Falus, Jakab, 1999; Sallai, Szekszárdi, Jakab; 1999, Szűcs 1997) .


6. The fate of Anthropology and Ethics from the late 90s up to this day[6]

The title of the essay on history of our new subject might be not else than Anthropology and Ethics in maze. We can say: in principle yes, in practice barely. In the late 90s the overwhelming majority of teachers agreed that considering knowledge of man our educational deficit is significant. They also agreed that something must be done urgently in this matter, and that a version of Learning about man included in the NCC seems to be a good solution. Yet, when it was time to carry plans out I experienced partly stubborn resistance, partly helplessness: who should teach it, from where and who should classes be taken away, these were the questions of directors mainly. Strangely dual (schizoid), in-principle-yes-in-practice-no attitude arose, and the balance was turned to 'no' in most cases.

            In the meantime 700 teachers participated in the 30-60 hour Learning about man or Anthropology and ethics courses of the county pedagogical institutes, local governments and pedagogical programs, In 1997-98 there were about 1000 admirers of Learning about man, but most of them was unable to haggle successfully with the colleagues and/or directors over getting minimum one hour per week in at least two years.

            No doubt, the overall picture can be interpreted so that most schools do not require Learning about man or Anthropology and Ethics because a) they are reserved from anything new, b)  they consider it a too difficult task, c) they do not want to upset the timetables, d) on ideological basis they cannot identify with the NCC of the previous government, e) the suspecting, reserved attitude of the  religious and church factors[7],  f) because neither man, nor morals are suitable for their pragmatist and utilitarian values. However, it is only a part, and maybe the smaller part of the truth. The fact is that at least 500, but maybe even 1000 schools seriously (or somewhat seriously) undertook teaching the new subject.

            At the time (1999-2000) of the work on the Central Framework Curricula (CFC)  the idea really brought up that ethics should be taught instead of Learning about man. The expert committee on the tuition of ethics, requested by the Minister of Education, also confronted with this idea. The members of the committee who represented different anthropological studies (mainly ethics) and who had different world-views39 defended the earlier (Anthropology and Ethics) conception. The expert committee definitely concluded that the Learning about man and of ethics and the religious instruction cannot substitute for each other, they are not foes, not even rivals, and they agreed that the religion can built upon anthropology and ethics well.

         In the end under the term Learning about man and of society, ethics such a subject got into the primary education of the CFC, which content stands on the basis of the NCC. Both the expert committee both those teachers who would have taught this subject to more grades and in more weekly contact times expressed their dissatisfaction with its extent. In consequence of the reduced size of the subject the moral responsibility casted the burden upon schools. Schools undoubtedly have the opportunity – if they consider the human and ethics important – to prepare such local curriculum in which this subject occurs in more grades and with more weekly contact times.

This eminently Hungarian, and at the same time genuine European innovation could not have become a complete success because in a peculiar way it fell victim to the ideological and pragmatic-rationalist way of thinking that was born in the reduced spirit of image of human, which inspire both the high politics and the educational policy40.

            Present-day heads of education face a dilemma: on the one hand it liberated schools from the CFC that strongly curtailed their autonomy, on the other hand it has to decide whether it shoulder the identity with its own, namely with that NCC. From it a quite decided scale of values can be gathered, of which one of the striking features is exactly Anthropology and Ethics. For the time being it cannot be experienced that beside the grater freedom the strongly bowdlerised honour of Learning about man would restore as well.

Until any central notice about Anthropology and Ethics only those schools can be reckoned on in whose scale of values human and ethics are of great importance, and it does not only become visible in principled position but also in the number of lessons. There are also about 50-100 grammar schools where this subject is taught either for four years (5 to 8) or for two years (7 to 8) as an independent subject, and there are schools where a part (or all) of the class teacher lessons is put at this subject’s disposal in order to increase the minimum number of lessons. And there are grammar schools, not more than a dozen, where this subject is taught instead of the mandatory one year for longer time.

            The future of Anthropology and Ethics can be formed in very different ways  a) the quick or slow decease, b) functioning in reduced üzemmód (as a facultative subject) , c) szigetek, végvárak, d) népszerűsíthető és követendő példák, e) paradigmatikus fordulat (külső segítség, spirituális válsáűg, pragmatikus szempontok, egyházi táűmogatás)



AMBRUS A., KÉRI K., 1996. A sokoldalú ember. Budapest, Calibra.  p.156 ISBN  963-686-134-3

BERAN F. (ed), 2005. Emberismeret és etika. 2005. Ed. Beran F. Budapest, Szent István Társulat p.     154  ISBN 963-361-328-0

BOHÁR A., 1993. Antropológiai és etikai vázlatok. Budapest, Keraban K. p.213. ISBN 963-8146-65-2

BÓNA G. M. M., 2003. Emberismeret és etika. Budapest, OKKER p.103. ISBN 963-9228-59-1

FALUS K., JAKAB Gy., 2005. Emberismeret és etika. Budapest, Független Pedagógiai Intézet.

            ISBN 963-86620-7-7

FALUS K., JAKAB Gy., 1999. Erkölcs és jog. Budapest. AKG Kiadó. p.143  ISBN 963-8328-32-0

GÉCZI J., KAMARÁS I., 2007. Emberismeret az útvesztőben. In: Új Pedagógiai Szemle, No. 12.


JAKAB Gy., SALLAI É., SZEKSZÁRDI J., 1999: Emberi kapcsolatok. Budapest, AKG Kiadó, p.187

            ISBN 963-91-9011-X

HOMOR T. (ed), 2003 Az etikatanítás gyakorlata, 2003. Budapest, Krónika Nova p.308. ISBN


KAMARÁS I.,1993. Emberkép – embertan. Budapest. Szent Gellért Kiadó p.262  ISBN  963-7487-80-8

KAMARÁS I., 2007. Bevezetés az embertanba. Budapest, Loisir. p.351  ISBN 978-963-9063-27-4

KAMARÁS I.,1995: Emberismeret, erkölcsismeret, vallásismeret. Tantárgyi útmutató 4-6. évfolyam.        Budapest, ÉKP Központ —Tárogató K. p. 62.  ISBN 963-8491-68-X

KAMARÁS I., 2001. Erkölcstan. Budapest. Krónika Nova p.182  ISBN  963-9128-86-4

KAMARÁS I., MAKK K., VARGA Cs, 1993. Kagylózene (beszélgetések az emberről) / Budapest, Szent Gellért Kiadó  p. 357  ISBN 963-7487-84-0

KAMARÁS I., SÁRKÁNY K., 1993. Embertan középhaladóknak. Budapest, Keraban.  ISBN


KAMARÁS I., VÖRÖS K., 1996. Embertan I. Budapest, ÉKP Központ.  p.152  ISBN 963-8491-96-5

KAMARÁS I., VÖRÖS K., 1996. Embertan II. Budapest, ÉKP Központ. p.144  ISBN 963-9063-02-9

KAMARÁS I., VÖRÖS K., 2002. Embertan III. Veszprém, OKTKER-Nodus. p.186  TTI-26152-      EKT/2001

KELEMENNÉ F. M., 1995. Támasz és talpkő: tanulmányok az erkölcstan tanításához. Budapest. Kálvin            K. p. 178  ISBN 963-64-8869

KUSLITS K., 1993. Tanítható-e az ember? Budapest, Dinasztia K. p.217  ISBN 963-7695-67-1

LÁNYI A., JAKAB Gy., 1999. Erkölcsi esettanulmányok. Budapest, Alternatív Közgazdasági Gimnázium

            p. 245  ISBN 963-9190-04-7

LÉNÁRTNÉ H.I. (ed) 1993. Embertan óraleírások. Miskolc, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Megyei Pedagógiai           és Közművelődési Intézet. p.120  ISBN  963-64-3710

National core curriculum, 1996. Budapest, Ministry of Culture and Education. p.254  ISBN


POLINGER M., ZSÍROS L., 1992. Értelmes élet. Budapest,. Honffy K. p.56  ISBN 963-7713-04-2

RÉTHY E., 2006. Önismereti alapok. Emberismeret 13 éveseknek. Budapest, Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó

SZABÓ P.T., 1997. Erkölcstani vázlatok  Budapest, Paginárium  p.146   ISBN 963-85780-0-9

SZŰCS F., 1997. Hittan 12: feladatgyűjtemény: etika. Budapest. Református Köznevelési és     Közoktatási Intézet  p.145 ISBN 963-04-8869-8

ZSÍROS L., 1991. A szeretetről.  Budapest, Honffy K. p.46  ISBN 963-7713-00-X

[1] In the work team of the National Core Curriculum (NCC) responsible for the cultural domain Man and Society, led by Péter Szebenyi

[2] The biologist, the psychologist, the sociologist, the philosopher, the theologian, the poet, a 10-year-old boy, an 18-year-old girl, an old woman of the country, an unemployed semi-skilled worker, an Australian aborigine and a mysterious old man

[3] Cultural anthropology, ecology, communication, political science, religious science)

[4] The most important are indicated by cursive, in parentheses the Year is shown where it can be applied best.

[5] The best book of methodolgy of teaching of Anthropology and Ethics edited by Tivadar Homor, teacher of methodology

in Pannon University (Homor,

[6] About the detailed history of the new subject You can read: Géczi, Kamarás, 2007.

[7] However many of them have understood that the new subject has not born against religious education, ont he contrary - in he spirit of gratia supponit naturam (the gratia supposes nature) - the religious education may be very well build on top of Antrhropology ans ethics. Naturally the optimal solution would be when every pupil could learn - beside Anthropolgy and Ethics - Religious Study as well (undersanding also the religious pupils).


39 The three biggest historical Churches had separate representatives in the committee as well, which had a good number of religious members besides them.

40 In 1998-ban, at the introduction of the National Core Curriculum about 50 schools started to teach this subject in at least one hour per week, in about 1000 schools within the scope of Class teacher lesson. Next years the education of this subject stopped in most of the schools at the news of Framework Curricula, though by 1998 already 800 teachers had finished a 30-60 hour preparatory training.



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